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Table 1 Features of heroin-dependent patientsa

From: Allelic and genotypic associations of DRD2 Taq I A polymorphism with heroin dependence in Spanish subjects: a case control study

  All Males Females Gender comparisons
  (n = 281) (n = 207) (n = 74) t or χ2 P
Age (years) 36.4 ± 6.3 36.6 ± 6.2 35.8 ± 6.5 t = 0.92 0.36
Heroin use      
   Age of onset (years) 20.1 ± 5.3 20.0 ± 5.1 20.3 ± 5.8 t = -0.45 0.66
   Route of administration (%)      
Intravenous 70.4 73.5 62.5 χ2 = 2.38 0.31
Smoked 10.8 9.5 14.3   
Intranasal 18.7 17.0 23.2   
Non-opioid substance useb (%)      
Alcohol 56.6 59.9 47.3 χ2 = 3.53 0.06
Benzodiazepines 42.7 43.0 41.9 χ2 = 0.03 0.87
Cannabis 81.5 85.0 71.6 χ2 = 6.49 0.01
Cocaine 71.5 70.5 74.3 χ2 = 0.39 0.54
  1. a Values are mean ± SD unless otherwise indicated
  2. b Non-opioid substance use is defined as a regular and/or maladaptative pattern of non-opioid substance use during a longlife cumulative period longer than a year