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Table 2 Orexin fiber distribution

From: A comparative analysis of the distribution of immunoreactive orexin A and B in the brains of nocturnal and diurnal rodents

Brain region LE rat Grass rat Hamster Degu
  A B A B A B A B
Hypothalamus         
   Anterior hypothalamic area ++ ++ + + +++ ++ +++ +++
   Anterodorsal preoptic nucleus + + + + ++ + ++ ++
   Anteroventral periventricular nucleus ++ + + - ++ ++ ++ ++
   Arcuate nucleus +++ +++ +++ + ++ ++ ++ ++
   Circular nucleus ++ + ++ + +++ +++ +++ +++
   Dorsal hypothalamic area ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ ++
   Dorsomedial nucleus +++ ++ ++ + +++ ++ +++ +++
   Lateral hypothalamic area +++ +++ +++ +++ +++ +++ ++ ++
   Lateral mammillary nucleus + + + + +++ +++ + +
   Lateral preoptic area +++ + + + ++ + ++ ++
   Lateroanterior nucleus ++ + ++ ++ +++ +++ +++ +++
   Magnocellular preoptic nucleus + + + + ++ ++ ++ ++
   Medial mammillary nucleus, lateral part - - - - - - + +
   Medial mammillary nucleus, medial part - - - - - - - -
   Medial mammillary nucleus, median part + + + + - - + +
   Medial preoptic area ++ + + + ++ ++ ++ ++
   Medial preoptic nucleus ++ + ++ ++ ++ + ++ ++
   Median preoptic nucleus +++ +++ ++ ++ +++ +++ +++ +++
   Parastrial nucleus +++ ++ ++ ++ + + + +
   Paraventricular nucleus, magnocellular ++++ ++ ++ + ++ ++ ++ ++
   Paraventricular nucleus, parvocellular +++ ++ +++ ++ ++ ++ ++ ++
   Perifornical nucleus ++++ +++ +++ ++ + + +++ +++
   Periventricular nucleus +++ ++ ++ + ++ ++ +++ +++
   Posterior hypothalamic area +++ +++ ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ ++
   Posterodorsal preoptic nucleus ++ + ++ ++ ++ + ++ ++
   Preoptic nucleus, ventromedial +++ +++ +++ ++ ++ ++ +++ +++
   Retrochiasmatic area +++ ++ ++ ++ +++ ++ +++ +++
   Subincertal nucleus +++ +++ ++ ++ + + + +
   Submammillothalamic nucleus ++ + ++ ++ + + ++ ++
   Suprachiasmatic nucleus, anterior - - - - + + - -
   Suprachiasmatic nucleus, posterior + + - - + + + +
   Supramammillary nucleus +++ ++ ++ + ++ ++ +++ +++
   Supraoptic nucleus ++++ + ++++ ++ ++ + + +
   Supraoptic nucleus, retrochiasmatic ++++ ++ +++ + ++ + +++ +++
   Tuberomammillary nucleus ++++ ++++ +++ +++ ++++ ++++ ++++ ++++
   Tuberum cinereum ++ ++ +++ ++ + + ++ ++
   Ventrolateral preoptic area +++ ++ + + +++ ++ +++ +++
   Ventromedial nucleus ++ + + + ++ ++ ++++ ++++
   Ventromedial nucleus, anterior + + + + ++ + ++++ ++++
   Zona incerta, caudal ++ + + + + + - -
   Zona incerta, rostral ++ + + + ++ ++ + +
Thalamus         
   Anterodorsal nucleus + + ++ ++ + + + +
   Anteromedial nucleus - - - - - - - -
   Anteroventral nucleus + + + - - - - -
   Central medial nucleus ++ ++ + + + - ++ +
   Centrolateral nucleus + + + + + + +++ +++
   Dorsolateral geniculate nucleus - - - - - - - -
   Interanterodorsal nucleus + + + + ++ + - -
   Interanteromedial nucleus ++ + + + + + - -
   Intergeniculate leaflet ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ ++
   Intermediodorsal nucleus ++ ++ +++ +++ ++ ++ + +
   Lateral posterior nucleus - - - - - - - -
   Laterodorsal thalamic nucleus + + - - - - - -
   Medial geniculate nucleus - - + + - - - -
   Mediodorsal thalamic nucleus + + + + ++ + ++ ++
   Nucleus of the fields of Forel + + - - + + - -
   Paracentral nucleus ++ ++ - - + + +++ +++
   Parafascicular nucleus + + + + + - - -
   Paratenial nucleus - - ++ + + + + +
   Paraventricular nucleus ++++ ++++ +++ +++ ++++ ++++ ++++ ++++
   Posterior intralaminar nucleus ++ ++ + + + + + +
   Posterior limitans ++ ++ ++ + ++ ++ ++ ++
   Posterior nuclear complex - - - - - - - -
   Reticular thalamic nucleus + - - - - - - -
   Reuniens nucleus + + + + + - + +
   Rhomboid nucleus ++ ++ - - ++ ++ - -
   Submedius nucleus - - + + + - - -
   Subparafascicular nucleus + + + + + + + +
   Ventral anterior nucleus - - - - - - - -
   Ventral posteriolateral nucleus - - - - - - - -
   Ventral posteriomedial nucleus - - - - - - - -
   Ventrolateral geniculate nucleus + + + + + + + +
   Ventrolateral thalamic nucleus - - - - - - - -
   Ventromedial thalamic nucleus ++ + - - - - - -
   Xiphoid nucleus +++ ++ +++ ++ +++ +++ + +
Epithalamus         
   Lateral habenular nucleus ++ + - - + + + +
   Medial habenular nucleus - - ++ + ++ - - -
   Stria medullaris - - - - + - - -
Cerebral isocortex         
   Layer 1 + + + + + + + +
   Layer 2 + + + + + + + +
   Layer 3 -/+ -/+ -/+ -/+ -/+ -/+ -/+ -/+
   Layer 4 -/+ -/+ -/+ -/+ -/+ -/+ -/+ -/+
   Layer 5 + + + + + + + +
   Layer 6 + + + + + + + +
   Agranular insular cortex ++ + + + + + + +
   Cingulate and retrosplenial agranular cortex + + + + + + - -
   Frontal cortex + + + + + + + +
   Granular insular cortex + + + + ++ ++ + +
   Occipital cortex - - + + + + + +
   Orbital cortex + + + + + + + +
   Parietal cortex + + + + + + + +
Amygdala         
   Anterior amygdaloid area + + + + ++ ++ ++ ++
   Anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral cortical amygdaloid nuclei ++ ++ ++ ++ + + ++ ++
   Basolateral amygdaloid nucleus + + - - + + + +
   Basomedial amygdaloid nucleus + + + + + + ++ ++
   Bed nucleus of the stria terminalis*         
Intraamygdaloid division + + + + + + + +
Lateral division ++ ++ ++ + N/A N/A + +
Lateral division, dorsal (Rat), anterolateral (Hamster) ++ + + + ++ ++ + +
Lateral division, posterior (Rat), posterolateral (Hamster) ++ ++ ++ + ++ ++ + +
Lateral division, ventral (Rat), anteroventral (Hamster) +++ +++ ++ + ++ ++ ++ ++
Medial division, anterior (Rat), anteromedial (Hamster) ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ ++
Medial division, posterointermediate (Rat), posteromedial (Hamster) + + ++ + ++ ++ ++ ++
Medial division, posterolateral (Rat), posterointermediate (Hamster) + + ++ + ++ ++ ++ ++
   Central amygdaloid nucleus + + + + + + - -
   Intercalated amygdaloid nucleus ++ + + - ++ ++ ++ ++
   Lateral amygdalohippocampal area + + + - + + ++ ++
   Lateral amygdaloid nucleus + + + + + + + +
   Medial amygdaloid nucleus ++ + + + +++ +++ + +
   Nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract + + + + ++ ++ + +
   Posteromedial amygdalohippocampal area + + + + + + +++ +++
Hippocampus         
   CA1 + + + + - - - -
   CA2 - - - - + + - -
   CA3 - - - - + + + +
   Dentate gyrus + + - - - - + +
   Tenia tecta + + ++ + ++ ++ ++ ++
   Entorhinal cortex + + + - + + + +
   Indusium griseum ++ ++ + + ++ ++ - -
   Subiculum + + - - - - + +
Olfactory         
   Anterior olfactory nuclei ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ + +
   Islands of Calleja + + + + ++ ++ ++ ++
   Olfactory bulb - - - - - - - -
   Olfactory tubercule - - - - + + + +
   Piriform cortex + + + + + + + +
Other Forebrain         
   Bed nucleus of the anterior commissure +++ ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ ++
   Claustrum ++ ++ + + ++ ++ + +
   Dorsal endopiriform nucleus ++ + + + + + + +
Septal nuclei         
   Lateral septal nucleus, dorsal part ++ ++ ++ + ++ + + +
   Lateral septal nucleus, intermediate part + + + - + + - -
   Lateral septal nucleus, ventral part + + ++ + ++ ++ + +
   Medial septal nucleus ++ ++ + + +++ +++ ++ ++
   Nucleus of the horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca +++ ++ + + ++ ++ ++ ++
   Nucleus of the vertical limb of the diagonal band of Broca +++ + + + +++ ++ ++ ++
   Septofimbrial nucleus + + + + ++ ++ + +
   Septohippocampal nucleus ++ + + + +++ +++ ++ ++
   Triangular septal nucleus + + - - + + - -
Basal ganglia         
   Accumbens nucleus, core - - - - + + - -
   Accumbens nucleus, shell + + ++ + - - + +
   Accumbens shell, lateral + + + + + + - -
   Caudate putamen - - - - + + - -
   Dorsal peduncular pontine nucleus ++ + ++ ++ + + + +
   Globus pallidus, lateral + + + + - - - -
   Globus pallidus, medial - - - - - - - -
   Pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus ++ ++ ++ + ++ ++ ++ ++
   Peripeduncular nucleus + + + + ++ ++ + +
   Substantia innominata ++ ++ + + ++ ++ ++ ++
   Substantia nigra, compact part + + + + + + + +
   Substantia nigra, lateral part ++ ++ + + ++ ++ + +
   Substantia nigra, reticular part - - - - - - - -
   Subthalamic nucleus + + + + ++ ++ - -
   Ventral pallidum ++ ++ + + + + + +
   Ventral tegmental area ++ + ++ + ++ ++ ++ ++
   Ventral tegmental nucleus ++ + - - + + + +
Brainstem reticular nuclei         
   B9 serotoin cells ++ ++ + + ++ ++ - -
   Cuneiform nucleus ++ ++ ++ + ++ ++ + +
   Deep mesencephalic nucleus ++ ++ + + ++ + + +
   Dorsal paragigantocellular nucleus + + - - + + + +
   Gigantocellular reticular nucleus ++ + + + + + + +
   Gigantocellular reticular nucleus, ventral part ++ + ++ + ++ ++ ++ ++
   Gigantocellular reticular nucleus, α part ++ ++ ++ + ++ ++ ++ ++
   Intermediate reticular nucleus +++ + - - ++ + + +
   Lateral paragigantocellular nucleus +++ ++ + + ++ ++ +++ +++
   Lateral reticular nucleus ++ + + + + + + +
   Medullary reticular nuclei, dorsal part + + + + + + + +
   Medullary reticular nuclei, ventral part + + + + + + + +
   Paramedian reticular nucleus + + - - + + + +
   Parvocellular reticular nucleus ++ ++ + + ++ + + +
   Pontine reticular nucleus, caudal part + + + - + + + +
   Pontine reticular nucleus, oral part ++ + + + + + - -
   Pontine reticular nucleus, ventral part - - + + ++ ++ + +
   Reticulotegmental nucleus of the pons +++ ++ ++ ++ + + + +
   Subcoeruleus nucleus, dorsal part ++ ++ + + ++ ++ ++ ++
   Subcoeruleus nucleus, ventral part ++ ++ + - ++ ++ + +
   Subcoeruleus nucleus, á part +++ +++ +++ ++ +++ +++ +++ +++
Sensory, somatic and motor nuclei         
   Abducens nucleus (VI) - - - - - - - -
   Ambiguus nucleus ++++ +++ +++ ++ ++ + ++ ++
   Barrington's nucleus ++++ +++ +++ +++ ++++ ++++ +++ +++
   Dorsal motor nucleus of vagus (X) + + + + ++ + + +
   Facial nucleus (VII) ++ + ++ + + + ++ ++
   Gracile nucleus - - - - ++ + + +
   Hypoglossal nucleus (XII) + + + - - - + +
   Kölliker-Fuse nucleus +++ ++ ++ ++ +++ +++ +++ +++
   Lateral parabrachial nucleus +++ +++ ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ ++
   Medial parabrachial nucleus +++ ++ + + ++ + ++ ++
   Nucleus of the solitary tract         
Central ++ ++ + + + + ++ ++
Dorsal ++++ +++ ++++ ++++ ++++ ++++ +++ +++
Medial + + +++ ++ +++ +++ +++ +++
Ventrolateral +++ ++ + + ++ ++ ++ ++
   Oculomotor nucleus (III) - - - - - - - -
   Trigeminal motor nucleus (V) + + + + - - + +
   Trigeminal principal sensory nucleus (V) + + + + + + + +
   Trigeminal spinal nucleus, caudal part + + ++ ++ + + ++ ++
   Trigeminal spinal nucleus, interpolar part - - + + + + + +
   Trigeminal spinal nucleus, oral part - - + + + + ++ ++
   Trochlear motor nucleus (IV) + + - - + + - -
Raphé nuclei         
   Dorsal raphé nucleus ++++ ++++ +++ +++ ++++ ++++ ++++ ++++
   Linear nucleus of the raphé +++ +++ ++ + +++ ++ ++ ++
   Median raphé nucleus ++++ ++ +++ +++ +++ +++ +++ +++
   Pontine raphé nucleus +++ +++ ++ ++ +++ ++ +++ +++
   Raphé magnus nucleus +++ ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ ++
   Raphé obscurus nucleus +++ ++ ++ + +++ +++ +++ +++
   Raphé pallidus nucleus +++ ++ ++ + ++ ++ + +
   Rhabdoid nucleus + + + + + + + +
Periaqueductal gray         
   Dorsolateral periaqueductal gray ++ ++ + + ++ ++ + +
   Dorsomedial periaqueductal gray +++ +++ ++ ++ +++ +++ ++ ++
   Lateral periaqueductal gray +++ +++ ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ ++
   Thalamic periaqueductal gray ++ ++ + + +++ ++ ++ ++
   Ventrolateral periaqueductal gray +++ ++ +++ ++ +++ ++ +++ +++
Other midbrain         
   Dorsolateral pontine nucleus + + ++ ++ - - + +
   Inferior colliculus + + - - ++ + ++ ++
   Interpeduncular nucleus + + ++ + ++ ++ - -
   Pretectal nuclei         
Anterior pretectal nucleus + + + + - - + +
Medial pretectal nucleus ++ ++ ++ + ++ ++ ++ ++
Posterior pretectal nucleus ++ + + + - - ++ ++
   Red nucleus - - - - - - + -
   Superior colliculus + + - - - - + +
   Tegmental nuclei         
Anterior tegmental nucleus + + - - + + + +
Dorsal tegmental nucleus - - - - - - - -
Laterodorsal tegmental nucleus ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ +++ +++
Cerebellum         
   Cerebellar cortex - - - - - - ++ +
   Interposed, lateral, and medial cerebellar nuclei + + + + - - ++ ++
Other hindbrain         
   Central tegmental tract ++ ++ + + ++ + + +
   Cochlear nuclei         
Dorsal cochlear nucleus + + - - + + + +
Ventral cochlear nucleus - - - - - - - -
   Inferior olive ++ + +++ ++ - - - -
   Lateral lemniscus + + - - + - - -
   Locus coeruleus ++++ ++++ ++++ ++++ ++++ ++++ +++ +++
   Nucleus of Darkschewitsch - - ++ + - - + +
   Parabigeminal nucleus + + + + ++ ++ +++ ++
   Prepositus nucleus ++ + - - + + ++ ++
   Superior olivary nuclei         
Nucleus of the trapezoid body ++ + + + - - + +
Superior olive - - - - - - - -
Trapezoid body - - + + + + - -
   Vestibular nuclei + + + + + - ++ +
Circumventricular and non-neuronal         
   Area postrema - - - - - - ++ ++
   Choroid plexus + + + + + + + +
   Ependyma + + ++ + + + + +
   Median eminence ++++ + ++++ + ++ ++ ++ ++
   Subcommisural organ - - - - - - - -
   Subfornical organ + + + - - - ++ +
  1. Distribution of orexin A and B fibers in the Long-Evans rat, grass rat, Syrian hamster, and degu. The relative densities of OXA- or OXB-containing fibers are indicated in each column as very dense (indicated by ++++), dense (+++), moderately dense (++), sparse (+), or absent (-). Unmarked rows indicate areas for which no data are available.