A. An example of a reference Gabor stimulus with its corresponding test stimulus for the verbal condition, in which the participants were instructed to memorize the orientation with a sub-vocal verbal rehearsal strategy (e.g. "left", "right" of vertical). The example depicts stimuli on a trial in which the test and the reference grating differed. B. An example of a stimulus pair for the nonverbal conditions, in which the instructions emphasized the use of visual encoding. Here the stimuli are taken from a trial in which the test and the reference stimulus differed.