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Table 3 Post-hoc comparisons between adequately nourished and malnourished groups across the two age groups

From: Cognitive development in children with chronic protein energy malnutrition

Groups Variables Probability level
Selective Attention (color cancellation test: time in seconds)
AN 5–7 vs 8–10 p < .05
MN 5–7 vs 8–10 p < .05
5–7 years AN vs MN p < .05
8–10 years AN vs MN p < .05
Executive functions
Cognitive flexibility (FAS phonemic fluency test)
AN 5–7 vs 8–10 p > .05
MN 5–7 vs 8–10 p < .05
5–7 years AN vs MN p < .05
8–10 years AN vs MN p > .05
Cognitive flexibility (design fluency test)
AN 5–7 vs 8–10 p < .05
MN 5–7 vs 8–10 p > .05
5–7 years AN vs MN p < .05
8–10 years AN vs MN p < .05
Working memory (tapping blocks in sequence)
AN 5–7 vs 8–10 p > .05
MN 5–7 vs 8–10 p > .05
5–7 years AN vs MN p < .05
8–10 years AN vs MN p < .05
Visuospatial functions
Visual perception (motor-free visual perception test)
AN 5–7 vs 8–10 p > .05
MN 5–7 vs 8–10 p > .05
5–7 years AN vs MN p < .05
8–10 years AN vs MN p < .05
Visuo-conceptual reasoning (picture completion test)
AN 5–7 vs 8–10 p > .05
MN 5–7 vs 8–10 p > .05
5–7 years AN vs MN p < .05
8–10 years AN vs MN p > .05
Visuoconstructive ability (block design test)
AN 5–7 vs 8–10 p < .05
MN 5–7 vs 8–10 p > .05
5–7 years AN vs MN p < .05
8–10 years AN vs MN p < .05
Comprehension, learning and memory
Verbal comprehension (token test)
AN 5–7 vs 8–10 p > .05
MN 5–7 vs 8–10 p > .05
5–7 years AN vs MN p < .05
8–10 years AN vs MN p > .05
Verbal learning (RAVLT)
AN 5–7 vs 8–10 p < .05
MN 5–7 vs 8–10 p > .05
5–7 years AN vs MN p > .05
8–10 years AN vs MN p < .05
Verbal memory (RAVLT)
AN 5–7 vs 8–10 p > .05
MN 5–7 vs 8–10 p > .05
5–7 years AN vs MN p > .05
8–10 years AN vs MN p < .05
Visual memory (memory for designs test)
AN 5–7 vs 8–10 p > .05
MN 5–7 vs 8–10 p > .05
5–7 years AN vs MN p < .05
8–10 years AN vs MN p < .05
  1. Note: AN: adequately nourished; MN: malnourished.