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Table 2 Neurocognitive profile of PD patients and normal controls

From: Impaired verbal memory in Parkinson disease: relationship to prefrontal dysfunction and somatosensory discrimination

Test Patients# Controls p§ Cognitive function
Executive functions     
Stroop effect (III-II) 11.4 ± 5.0 10.1 ± 3.4 0.27 Set maintenance, response inhibition, interference
Stroop errors 2.2 ± 1.8 0.7 ± 0.9 0.09 Response inhibition
Verbal fluency 27 ± 8.6 28.3 ± 9.2 0.59 Set maintenance, response inhibition, verbal concept production
Figural fluency 26 ± 9.8 30.6 ± 5.9 0.35 Set maintenance, response inhibition, figural concept production
Rey complex figure copy 17.6 ± 1.0 17.6 ± 1.2 1.00 Visuo-constructive (planning)
Rey complex figure recall 8.1 ± 4.3 11.3 ± 3.4 0.1 Visuo-constructive (planning), figural memory (active)
*Verbal memory     
Verbal learning (mean sum trial I-III) 19.3 ± 3.7 24.1 ± 2.6 0.002 Encoding
Immediate memory span (first trial) 5.4 ± 1.0 6.3 ± 1.2 0.1 Working memory
Delayed verbal free recall 4.6 ± 2.9 7.5 ± 1.4 0.008 Episodic memory (active)
Verbal recognition 9.2 ± 0.9 9.9 ± 0.3 0.08 Episodic memory (passive)
+ Spatial memory     
Figural learning (mean total) 16.8 ± 5.0 20.1 ± 4.9 0.13 Encoding
Immediate memory span (first trial) 3.8 ± 1.8 5.7 ± 1.7 0.09 Visuo-spatial working memory
Delayed figural free recall 6.2 ± 1.6 7.4 ± 2.0 0.18 Episodic memory (active)
Figure recognition 7.1 ± 2.9 9.0 ± 1.0 0.13 Episodic memory (passive)
  1. #Scores are indicated as mean ± SD. §, Mann-Whitney-U, two-tailed. * RAVLT, modified Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, +RVDLT, modified Rey Visual Design Learning Test