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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of the subjects

From: Relationship of tooth loss to mild memory impairment and cognitive impairment: findings from the fujiwara-kyo study

Variables Control n = 3696 MMI n = 121 Low MMSE score n = 214 Control vs. MMI P value* Control vs. Low MMSE score P value*
MMSE-total 28.0 (26.0, 30.0) 26.0 (25.0, 27.0) 23.0 (22.0, 23.0) <0.001 <0.001
Depressive symptoms      
   GDS 6 or more 14.4% --† 23.8% --† <0.001
Age (y) 71.0 (68.0, 75.0) 74.0 (71.0, 79.0) 74.0 (71.0, 78.0) <0.001 <0.001
Female 51.7% 31.4% 42.5% <0.001 0.009
Length of education      
   Less than 12 years 26.6% 37.2% 63.6% 0.012 <0.001
Oral health      
   Number of remaining teeth 21.0 (11.0, 26.0) 16.0 (4.0, 25.0) 12.5 (1.8, 22.0) 0.001 <0.001
   CPI      
Ineligible‡ 13.2% 23.1% 27.6%   
Code 0, 1, or 2 26.3% 18.1% 19.1%   
Code 3 38.3% 31.4% 34.1% 0.082 0.577
Code 4 22.2% 27.3% 19.2%   
Drinking habits      
   At least 1 day a weak 38.1% 51.2% 38.3% 0.004 0.961
   Ethanol intake 40 g or more per day 28.9% 25.5% 24.2% 0.752 0.473
Smoking habit      
   Never 59.0% 42.9% 54.2%   
   Ex-smoker 31.8% 47.9% 29.9% <0.001 <0.001
   Current smoker 9.2% 9.1% 15.9%   
Time spent walking every day on average      
   Less than 30 minutes 8.0% 9.9% 13.1% 0.396 0.014
Positive history of disease      
   Cancer 9.1% 14.9% 10.7% 0.037 0.394
   Cerebrovascular disease 5.7% 9.1% 6.5% 0.117 0.650
   Myocardial infarction 2.6% 2.5% 2.3% 0.936 0.815
   Diabetes mellitus 10.8% 13.2% 15.4% 0.375 0.043
   Hypertension 39.1% 38.8% 41.6% 0.960 0.472
Medical examination      
   Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 142 (129, 155) 146 (128, 159) 145 (132, 159) 0.350 0.080
   Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 76 (68, 83) 75 (66, 84) 75 (66, 83) 0.256 0.121
   Body mass index 22.8 (20.9, 24.7) 22.9 (20.8, 24.6) 22.9 (20.8, 25.6) 0.761 0.581
   Serum albumin (g/dL) 4.5 (4.4, 4.7) 4.5 (4.3, 4.6) 4.6 (4.3, 4.7) 0.002 0.758
   Hemogrobin A1c (%) 5.1 (4.9, 5.5) 5.1 (4.8, 5.5) 5.2 (4.9, 5.5) 0.484 0.978
   Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 215.0 (193.0, 237.0) 205.5 (186.0, 228.0) 202.5 (181.8, 232.3) 0.011 <0.001
   Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (mg/dL) 126.0 (107.0, 147.0) 123.0 (102.0, 140.5) 120.0 (98.8, 139.3) 0.065 0.003
  1. Data are given as % or median (25th percentile,75th percentile).
  2. MMI: Mild Memory Impairment, MMSE: Mini-Mental State Examination, GDS: Geriatric Depression Scale, CPI: Community Periodontal Index.
  3. *The chi-square test or Mann-Whitney test was performed.
  4. †The subjects whose GDS score were "6 or more" were excluded from the MMI group.
  5. ‡Subjects in whom none of the six fractions could be evaluated because of the low number of remaining teeth.