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Figure 1 | Behavioral and Brain Functions

Figure 1

From: Effects of early life trauma are dependent on genetic predisposition: a rat study

Figure 1

Elevated plus maze behaviour of SHR and WKY males (M) and females (F), maternally separated (MS) or non-maternally separated (nMS). Time spent in the open arms is expressed as a percentage of total time spent in the open and closed arms (a and b). Open arm entries are expressed as a fraction of the total arm entries (c and d). Distance travelled is the total distance travelled in the EPM for the total 5-minute period (e) or within each individual minute (f). For each parameter, data are shown for the total 5-minute period (a, c, and e) and for each individual minute (b, d and f). a. #SHR females spent more of the total 5-minute period in the open arms than SHR males (p < 0.05). b. #Females spent more time in the open arms than males (p < 0.05). c. *SHR entered the open arms more frequently than WKY (p < 0.05). d. *SHR entered the open arms more frequently than WKY (p < 0.05). #Females entered the open arms more frequently than males (p < 0.05). e. *SHR travelled greater distance than WKY (p < 0.05). f. *SHR travelled greater distance than WKY in every minute (p < 0.05). #Females travelled further than males from the 2nd minute onwards (p < 0.01). @Maternal separation decreased distance travelled by WKY (p < 0.05). (SHR males: nMS, n = 9, MS, n = 9; SHR females: nMS, n = 5, MS, n = 14; WKY males: nMS, n = 9; MS, n = 9; WKY females, nMS, n = 10, MS, n = 8).

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