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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of the smokers and non-smokers

From: Altered spontaneous activity in young chronic cigarette smokers revealed by regional homogeneity

  Smokers non-smokers
Demographic variables   
N 45 44
Age, years, mean ± SD 27.9 (5.6) 26.3 (5.8)
Range, years 19-39 19-38
Sex (female/male) 8/37 (17.8%) 10/34 (22.7%)
Subjects’ education, years, mean ± SD 13.1 ± 3.0 a 15.0 ± 2.6
Handedness, right/left (n) 43/2 43/1
Married 19 (42.2%) 15 (34.1%)
Drinker/never-drinker b 31/14 18/26
Age at start of smoking, mean ± SD 18.0 ± 4.3
Smoking initiation age range (years) 11-30
Years smoking, mean ± SD 10.2 ± 5.8
Range, years 1.5-21
Cigarettes per day 20.3 ± 7.6  
Range, cigarettes per day 10-40
Smoking cravings c 6.41 ± 1.7
Range, scores 3-10
  1. a significantly different from control group, p < 0.01.
  2. b three participants reported drinking more than once a week among smokers and no non-smoking participants reported drinking more than once a week.
  3. c Before MRI acquisition run, participants were asked to rank their craving from 0 (“not at all”) to 10 (“extreme”).