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Table 4 Spearman’s correlations for ADHD symptom scores and serum variables, adjusted for cotinine and age

From: Serum concentrations of kynurenines in adult patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a case–control study

   Trp Kyn KTR HK KA XA AA HAA QA Vit. B2 Vit. B6
All            
 N = 248 ASRS total score −0.15* −0.14* 0.04 0.04 −0.08 0.01 0.04 −0.05 −0.04 −0.13* −0.06
 N = 250 ASRS inattentive −0.15* −0.13* 0.06 0.02 −0.08 −0.01 0.06 −0.03 −0.01 −0.06 −0.03
 N = 251 ASRS hyperactive/impulsive −0.14* −0.16* 0.02 0.03 −0.09 0.01 0.02 −0.07 −0.07 −0.17* −0.05
 N = 243 WURS total score −0.18* −0.15* 0.03 −0.01 −0.14* −0.08 0.05 −0.08 −0.05 −0.09 −0.01
ADHD
 N = 121 ASRS total score −0.20* −0.16 0.07 0.11 −0.05 0.01 0.05 −0.01 −0.14 −0.17 −0.22*
 N = 122 ASRS inattentive −0.20* −0.16 0.08 0.11 −0.03 0.06 0.02 0.07 −0.08 −0.09 −0.19*
 N = 123 ASRS hyperactive/impulsive −0.17 −0.14 0.03 0.09 −0.03 −0.02 0.06 −0.05 −0.12 −0.17 −0.14
 N = 115 WURS total score −0.27* −0.13 0.13 −0.08 −0.18 −0.16 0.15 −0.09 −0.16 0.05 −0.04
Control
 N = 127 ASRS total score −0.05 −0.11 0.03 −0.11 −0.12 0.01 −0.05 −0.07 −0.10 −0.14 −0.04
 N = 128 ASRS inattentive 0.01 −0.02 0.03 −0.13 −0.10 −0.04 0.02 −0.01 −0.01 −0.07 0.03
 N = 128 ASRS hyperactive/impulsive −0.10 −0.19* −0.01 −0.09 −0.13 0.05 −0.12 −0.10 −0.17 −0.19* −0.08
 N = 128 WURS total score −0.14 −0.14 0.03 −0.07 −0.11 −0.07 −0.07 −0.06 −0.08 −0.11 −0.01
  1. The 18-item ASRS (Adult ADHD Self-report Scale) is used to assess current ADHD symptom burden, with nine questions specific to hyperactivity/impulsivity and nine questions specific to inattentiveness. WURS (Wender Utah Rating Scale) consists of 25 items for retrospective assessment of childhood ADHD symptom burden. Significance: <0.05 ‘*’
  2. Trp tryptophan, Kyn kynurenine, KTR kynurenine/tryptophan ratio, HK 3-hydroxykynurenine, KA kynurenic acid, XA xanthurenic acid, AA anthranilic acid, HAA 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, QA quinolinic acid, Cot cotinine