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Table 1 Summary of human studies of the BDNF promoters’ DNA methylation in psychiatric disorders

From: BDNF DNA methylation changes as a biomarker of psychiatric disorders: literature review and open access database analysis

Reference Year BDNF region Chromosomal position (hg19) Phenotype Tissue Samples Method Statistical power
Fuchikami et al. 2011 Promoter I Promoter IV chr11:27743473–27744564
Major depression (MDD) Peripheral blood 20 MDD, 18 CT EpiTYPER CpG8,9—75.7 %
CpG76—54.3 %
CpG80,81—79.1 %
For rest CpGs—>80 %
D’Addario et al. 2012 Promoter I chr11:27744031–27744193 Bipolar disorder I, II (BDI, BDII) Peripheral blood 49 BD I, 45 BD II, 52 CT Methylation-specific real-time PCR BDII vs CT—62.5 %
Antidep. vs antidep-free—93 %
D’Addario et al. 2013 Promoter I chr11:27744031–27744193 Major depression Peripheral blood 41 MDD, 44 CT Methylation-specific real-time PCR Methylation level —83.1 %
Expression level—65.9 %
Ikegame et al. 2013 Promoter I Promoter IV chr11:27743390–27743763
Schizophrenia (SCZ) Peripheral blood 100 SCZ, 100 CT Bisulfite pyrosequencing CpG72—52.4 %
Perroud et al. 2013 Promoter I Promoter IV chr11:27743862–27744057
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) Peripheral blood 115 BPD, 52 CT High resolution melt analysis BPD vs CT—100 %
Dell’Osso et al. 2014 Promoter I chr11:27744031–27744194 Bipolar disorder I, II, major depression Peripheral blood 43MDD, 61 BD I, 50 BD II, 44 CT Methylation-specific real-time PCR MDD, BDII vs BDI and CT—100 %
Kleimann et al. 2015 Promoter I Promoter IV Promoter VI chr11:27743416–27744782 (3 regions) chr11:27723103–27723511
chr11:27722216–27722863 (2 regions)
Treatment-resistant major depression (electroconvulsive therapy) Peripheral blood 11MDD Direct bisulfite sequencing Remit. vs non-remit. 4 treatment sessions: 91–100 %
Chagnon et al. 2015 Promoter I Exon III Promoter VI/Exon VI NS Anxiety/major depression Saliva 19 MDD, 24 CT Bisulfite pyrosequencing MDD vs CT—86.3 %
CT gen. MDD vs CT gen. CT—88.3 %
Keller et al. 2010 Promoter IV chr11:27723126–27723144 (4 CpG sites) Major depression, suicide Brain (Wernicke area) 44 SU, 33 CT Bisulfite pyrosequencing, direct bisulfite sequencing, EpiTYPER CpG1—98.1 %
CpG3—96.3 %
Average level—98.3 %
Kordi-Tamandani et al. 2012 Promoter IV NS Schizophrenia Peripheral blood 80 SCZ, 71 CT Methylation-specific PCR Methylation level—99 %
Expression level—94 %
Tadic et al. 2014 Promoter IV chr11:27723103–27723380 Major depression (antidepressant treatment) Peripheral blood 39 MDD Direct bisulfite sequencing NA
Thaler et al. 2014 Promoter IV chr11:27722840–27723980 Bulimic nervosa (BN),
Borderline personality disorder
Peripheral blood 64 BN(F), 32 CT EpiTYPER BN vs CT—in average for all CpG sites—99.8 %
Kang et al. 2013 Promoter VI chr11:27721688–27721823 Major depressive, suicidal behavior (antidepressant treatment) Peripheral blood 108 MDD Bisulfite pyrosequencing Previous suicidal attempt—76.7 %
Suicidal ideation during treatment—83.6 and 96.6 %
Kang et al. 2015a Promoter VI chr11:27721688–27721823 Depression related to breast cancer Peripheral blood 74 D, 235 CT Bisulfite pyrosequencing D vs CT within 1 week and 1 year in average—81.2 %
Kang et al. 2015b Promoter VI chr11:27721688–27721823 Late-life depression Peripheral blood 101 D, 631 CT Bisulfite pyrosequencing D vs CT at baseline and after 2 years in average—97.7 %
Unternaehrer et al. 2015 Exon VI chr11:27721543– 277221857 Low maternal care (LC) vs. high maternal care (HC) Peripheral blood 45 LC, 40 HC EpiTYPER NA
Mill et al. 2008 Promoter IX chr11:27679911–27680006 Schizophrenia, bipolar disorder Brain (frontal cortex) 35 SZ, 35 BD, 35 CT Enriched unmethylated DNA microarray, bisulfite pyrosequencing Val homozygotes (78) vs Met carries (27)—100 %