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Table 1 Socio-demographic and psychological characteristics of subjects

From: Brain structural investigation and hippocampal tractography in medication overuse headache: a native space analysis

Variables MOH patients (n = 14) Healthy controls (n = 15) Significance (p)
Subjects’ characteristics
 Age (years) 45.1 ± 11.2 47.5 ± 10.1 0.550
 Sex (F/H) 10/4 12/3 0.682
Migraine’s characteristics
 Migraine duration (years) 28.5 ± 11.9 NA
 Age of onset of migraine 16.6 ± 9.3 NA
 Medication Intake (per month) 59.8 ± 49.0 NA
 Opiates abuse (yes/no) 4/10 NA
 Caffeine abuse (yes/no) 3/11 NA
 Prior withdrawal 3/11 NA
Neuropsychological evaluation
 MDQ-H score 87.7 ± 25.5 21.8 ± 2.1 <0.001*
 BDI score 5.4 ± 4.5 1.1 ± 1.4 0.002*
 STAI score 40.2 ± 11.2 29.8 ± 8.9 0.010*
 PCS score 27.8 ± 12.6 5.1 ± 6.3 <0.001*
 BIS score 57.1 ± 7.9 59.4 ± 7.1 0.411
 IGT score 25.0 ± 26.3 16.0 ± 29.8 0.397
  1. BDI Beck Depression Inventory, PCS Pain Catastrophizing Scale, STAI State Anxiety Inventory, BIS Barrat Impulsivity Scale, MDQ-H Medication Dependence Questionnaire for Headache sufferers, IGT Iowa Gambling Task, NA not applicable
  2. * Significant between-groups difference at p < 0.001