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Fig. 5 | Behavioral and Brain Functions

Fig. 5

From: Motor cortex and pain control: exploring the descending relay analgesic pathways and spinal nociceptive neurons in healthy conscious rats

Fig. 5

Effect of cortical stimulation on DHSC activation. Quantification of Egr-1 (A), SP (D) and ENK (G) IR in the DHSC of naive (without surgical intervention), sham (with epidural electrodes but without stimulation) and stimulated (MCS, 1.0 V/60 Hz/210 µs, 15 min) rats. Values represent the mean ± SEM (n = 5 animals per group). *p < 0.05 compared to the naive group, after Bonferroni’s post hoc test. Photomicrographs illustrating Egr-1-IR (B, C), SP-IR (e, F) and ENK-IR (H, I) in sections of the DHSC (laminae I-IV, right side) from sham (B, E, H) and stimulated (C, F, I) rats. DHSC dorsal horn of the spinal cord, ENK enkephalin, IR immunoreactivity, MCS motor cortex stimulation, SP substance P. Scale bars: 200 µm

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