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Table 1 Consequences of bilingualism for linguistic and non-linguistic cognitive control

From: Consequences of multilingualism for neural architecture

  Type Region Effect Task Study
ACC Functional ACC Mono ≠ bi (greater activation for switch than non-switch for mono only) Non-verbal task switching Garbin et al. [47]
ACC Mono ≠ bi (greater activation for competitor than control, mono only) Visual world (phonological competition) Marian et al. [45]
ACC Mono > bi (activation associated with conflict effect) Flanker Abutalebi et al. [46]
ACC Mono > bi (activation associated with conflict effect) Stroop Waldie et al. [69]
Structural ACC Mono ≠ bi (− correlation: gray matter/conflict effect, bi only) Flanker Abutalebi et al. [46]
  ACC Bi > mono (gray matter) Flanker Abutalebi et al. [78, 179]
  ACC Multilingual controls > interpreters (gray matter); controls ≠ interpreters (− correlation: gray matter/interpreting hours; interpreters only)   Elmer et al. [87]
Frontal cortex/gyrus Functional L IFG Mono ≠ bi (overlapping activation across tasks, bi only) Linguistic/non-linguistic flanker; semantic categorization Coderre et al. [64]
L IFG Mono ≠ bi (greater activation for switch than non-switch, bi only) Non-verbal task switching Garbin et al. [47]
R IFG Mono ≠ bi (greater activation for switch than non-switch, mono only) Non-verbal task switching Garbin et al. [47]
SFG Mono ≠ bi (greater activation for competitor than control, mono only) Visual world (phonological competition) Marian et al. [45]
SFG, MFG, IFG Mono > bi (activation associated with conflict effect) Stroop Waldie et al. [69]
R SFG/R MFG Between > within-language (activation associated with conflict effect) Visual world (phonological competition) Marian et al. [67]
R SFG/R MFG/R IFG Dominant > non-dominant language competition (activation associated with conflict effect) Visual world (phonological competition) Marian et al. [67]
Structural DLPFC Mono ≠ bi (− correlation: gray matter/conflict effect, mono only) Flanker Abutalebi et al. [78, 179]
SFG Bi > mono (gray matter) Language switching Zou et al. [40]
MFG, IFG, R SFG Bi > mono (gray matter)   Olulade et al. [75] (experiment 1)
IFG Multilingual controls > interpreters (gray matter); controls ≠ interpreters (− correlation: gray matter/interpreting hours; interpreters only)   Elmer et al. [87]
Temporal cortex/gyrus Functional MTG, STS Mono ≠ bi (greater activation for competitor than control, mono only) Visual world (phonological competition) Marian et al. [45]
Structural R MTG, R ITG, Mono > bi (gray matter)   Olulade et al. [75] (experiment 1)
R STG, L MTG Bi > mono (gray matter)   Olulade et al. [75] (experiment 1)
L ITG Bi > mono (gray matter) Language switching Zou et al. [40]
Parietal cortex/gyrus Functional L IPL Mono ≠ bi (greater activation for switch than non-switch for mono only) Non-verbal task switching Garbin et al. [47]
Structural R IPL Bi > mono (gray matter)   Olulade et al. [75] (experiment 1)
L SMG Multilingual controls > interpreters (gray matter)   Elmer et al. [87]
Occipital cortex/gyrus Functional   Bi > mono (EEG complexity); mono ≠ bi (− correlation: complexity/conflict effect, bi only) Non-verbal task switching Grundy et al. [66, 68]
Structural L SOG, L IOG Bi > mono (gray matter)   Olulade et al. [75] (experiment 1)
Subcortical Functional L CN Bi > mono (activation associated with conflict effect) Stroop Waldie et al. [69]
L CN Bi only: more LCN activation when language switching than when not Language switching Zou et al. [40]
L CN/L putamen Bi only: between > within-language (activation associated with conflict effect) Visual world (phonological competition) Marian et al. [67]
Structural L CN Bi > mono (gray matter) Language switching Zou et al. [40]
L CN More > less multilingual experience (gray matter)   Hervais-Adelman et al. [76]
Striatum Mono ≠ bi (+ correlation: gray matter/faster switching, bi only) Non-verbal task switching Garbin et al. [47]
CN Controls ≠ interpreters (− correlation: gray matter/interpreting hours; interpreters only)   Elmer et al. [87]
L CN/Hip/Amg Less > more immersion (gray matter contraction)   Deluca et al. [85]
L Cb More > less immersion (gray matter)   Deluca et al. [85]
Cb Mono > bi (gray matter)   Olulade et al. [75] (experiment 1)
Multiple/other Functional ACC, PFC, striatum Bi ≠ mono (− correlation: ACC/PFC and striatum for monos; + correlation: ACC/PFC and striatum for bis) Rapid instructed task learning Becker et al. [48]
e.g., ACC, PFC, CN, putamen Bi > mono (overlapping activation across tasks) Verbal/non-verbal switching Anderson et al. [63]
  Bi > mono (overlapping activation across tasks) Verbal/non-verbal task switching Timmer et al. [65]
  Bi < mono (amplitude of N2 in Stroop), mono > bi (amplitude of P3 in Simon), bi ≠ mono (longer delay in P3 latency in Eriksen in monos) Stroop, Simon, and Eriksen tasks Kousaie and Phillips [51]
  Bi < mono (NInc positivity post-target onset) Bi > mono (NInc negativity pre-target onset) Stroop Coderre and van Heuven [61]
  Bi < mono (N400 conflict effect for Stroop) Stroop/negative priming Heidlmayr et al. [62]
  Bi > mono (CRN and ERN negativity) LANT Kałamała et al. [50]
  More > less interpreting experience (N1/N2 amplitude); less > more interpreting experience (P3 amplitude for incongruent trials only) Flanker Dong and Zhong [49]
  Bi > mono (N2 on NoGo) Go/NoGo Fernandez et al. [57]
  Bi > mono (N2 and late positivity wave on NoGo) Go/NoGo Moreno et al. [58]
  Bi > mono (N2 and P3 to AY) AX-CPT Morales et al. [52]
DMN, FPC Bi > mono (resting-state connectivity within and between networks)   Grady et al. [71]
Frontal, occipital, parietal regions Bi > mono (frontal-occipitopartietal resting-state connectivity) Bi < mono (frontal resting-state connectivity)   Luk et al. [70]
Structural SLF, IFOF Bi > mono (white matter)   Luk et al. [70]
ILF/IFOF, fornix, CC Mono > bi (white matter)   Gold et al. [99]