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Table 2 Consequences of bilingualism for speech perception and production

From: Consequences of multilingualism for neural architecture

  Type Region Effect Task Study
ACC Functional ACC/SMA Lower > higher proficiency (activation associated with reading) Single word reading Meschyan and Hernandez [149]
Frontal cortex/gyrus Functional   Mono ≠ bi (N1 amplitude; largest at word onset, mono only) Speech perception Astheimer et al. [108]
  Mono ≠ bi (P2 positivity in response to language change, bi only; P2 positivity greater for matching than mismatching stimuli, bi only) Picture-word relatedness (matching vs. mismatching) Kuipers and Thierry [105]
L IFC Bi > mono (activation) Speech perception Petitto et al. [124]
Structural R DLPFC Simultaneous > sequential bilinguals (gray matter)   Berken et al. [134, 150]
MFG/IFG Interpreters > control (cortical thickness after training). interpreters ≠ control (+ correlation MFG cortical thickness/effort; interpreters only) Proficiency test Mårtensson et al. [139]
L MFG/L IFG Unbalanced > balanced (cortical thickness); unbalanced ≠ balanced (− correlation foreign accent/MFG surface area) Proficiency test Archila-Suerte et al. [142]
Temporal cortex/gyrus Structural L STG Unbalanced > balanced (cortical thickness); unbalanced ≠ balanced (− correlation foreign accent/STS surface area) Proficiency test Archila-Suerte et al. [142]
STG Interpreters > control (cortical thickness after training). interpreters ≠ control (+ correlation STG cortical thickness/proficiency; interpreters only) Proficiency test Mårtensson et al. [139]
HG Bi > mono (HG volume, gray matter)   Ressel et al. [136]
Parietal cortex/gyrus Structural R IPL Interpreters < control (white matter)   Elmer et al. [87]
Occipital cortex/gyrus Structural L MOG/R LOC Simultaneous > sequential bilinguals (gray matter)   Berken et al. [134, 150]
Subcortical Functional Brainstem Bi > mono (ABR consistency); mono ≠ bi (+ correlation: ABR/selective attention, bi only) Sustained selective attention/speech perception Krizman et al. [111]
Brainstem Bi > mono (ABR consistency); mono ≠ bi (+ correlation: ABR/attentional control and proficiency, bi only) Attentional control/speech perception Krizman et al. [110]
Brainstem Bi > mono (ABR consistency) Speech perception Krizman et al. [113]
Brainstem Bi > mono (FFR) Speech perception Skoe et al. [115]
Brainstem Bi > mono (FFR) Speech perception Maggu et al. [114]
Brainstem Simultaneous > sequential bilinguals (ABR consistency; + correlation bilingual experience/ABR) Speech perception Krizman et al. [112]
L putamen L3 > L2 (activation associated with picture naming) Picture naming Abutalebi et al. [41]
Putamen Greater > lower proficiency (activation) Single word reading Meschyan and Hernandez [149]
Structural Putamen, thalamus, R CN, L globus pallidus Bi > mono (gray matter expansion)   Burgaleta et al. [145]
putamen Balanced > unbalanced (volume) Proficiency test Archila-Suerte et al.  [142]
L putamen Simultaneous > sequential bilinguals (gray matter); simultaneous ≠ sequential bilinguals (+ correlation: gray matter/native-like accent; sequential only).   Berken et al. [134, 150]
L putamen Bi > mono (gray matter); bi ≠ mono (+ correlation: gray matter/L3 proficiency; bi only) Picture naming Abutalebi et al. [41]
R Hip Interpreters > control (volume after training). interpreters ≠ control (+ correlation Hip volume/proficiency; interpreters only) Proficiency test Mårtensson et al. [139]
Upper corticospinal tract, R CN Interpreters < control (white matter)   Elmer et al. [144]
Multiple/other Functional   Bi > mono (ERP amplitude) Selective attention to tones Rämä et al. [109]
  Bi > mono (early MEG activity showing more acoustic processing of speech stimuli) Oddball paradigm (sound perception) Ferjan Ramírez et al. [125]
  Bi > mono (bilinguals faster at differentiating languages, as indicated by ERP) Oddball paradigm (picture-word pairs) Kuipers and Thierry [106]
  Mono ≠ bi (early ERP positivity for semantically matching pictures/words, bi only) Oddball paradigm (picture-word pairs) Kuipers and Thierry [107]
IFG, DLPFC, IPL, cerebellum Early bi > late bi (resting functional connectivity); + correlation (AoA and connectivity between L/R IFG for late bi) Speech production task Berken et al. [134, 150]
semantic module (seed: L SMG); phonological module (seed: L IFGpt) Early bi > late bi (resting functional connectivity in both modules)   Liu et al. [133]
Structural CC, IFOF, uncinate fasciculi (UF), SLF Bi > mono (white matter)   Pliatsikas et al. [91]
SLF, L IFOF, L UF + Correlation (L2 listening experience and white matter in UF and anterior IFOF); + correlation (L2 speaking experience and white matter in posterior SLF and IFOF); bi only; mono > bi (white matter)   Kuhl et al. [100]
CC, cingulum, AF, L IFOF Bi > mono (white matter); + correlation (immersion time and white matter in all but cingulum; bi only)   Rahmani et al. [153]
ILF, CC, AF + Correlation (AoA with L IFL, anterior CC, AF); + correlation (proficiency with L ILF, R AF, forceps minor of CC) Picture-word matching Nichols and Joanisse [152]
AF Early bi > late bi (white matter)   Hämäläinen et al. [154]
CC, L anterior insula Interpreters < control (white matter)   Elmer et al. [144]