Skip to main content

Table 1 Summary of compounds involved in regulation (activation or inactivation) of autophagy process of neurological diseases

From: The interplay between oxidative stress and autophagy: focus on the development of neurological diseases

Neurological disease Therapeutic compound Species/cell lines Primary contributed mechanisms related to autophagy Refs
Alzheimer’s disease Lithium Various models Regulation of inositol monophosphatase, GSK-3β, and mTOR [161]
Hydroxyurea APP/PS1 mice Augmentation of the expression of LC3 [162]
Atorvastatin Aβ1–42- SH-SY5Y Elevation of the expression of sestrins and LC3-II, alleviation of sirtuins and TPP1 [163]
Ferric-Tannic nanoparticles In vitro activation of lysosome [164]
Curcumin APP/PS1 double transgenic AD mice Inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTOR, an increase of LC3I/II and Beclin1 expression [165]
Berberine Three × Tg-AD mice Augmentation of LC3-II, Beclin-1, hVps34, and Cathepsin-D [166]
Berberine and Curcumin Aβ1-42-AD mice Augmentation of AMPKα phosphorylation and cell autophagy [65]
Resveratrol Aβ1–42-induced AD-PC12 Activation of mitophagy due to the abrogation of oxidative stress [167]
Geniposide APP/PS1 mice downregulation of mTOR [168]
Polydatin Aβ-induced neuron cytotoxicity activation of AMPK/mTOR pathway [169]
Melatonin AAV-hTauP301L viral vectors and okadaic acid-Tauopathy, mice and human brain tissue improvement of the autophagy markers comprising p62, LAMP1, and LC3 [170]
α-Tocopherol Aβ-SH-SY5Y Regulation of cathepsin-B, -L, -D, syntaxin 17, GABA type A receptor-associated protein, GABA type A receptor-associated protein-like 1; ATG3, ATG4A, ATG4B, myotubularin related protein 3, UV radiation resistance-associated, autophagy and Beclin 1 regulator 1, vacuole membrane protein 1, WDrepeat domain, phosphoinositide interacting 1, WDrepeat domain, phosphoinositide interacting 2, unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 2 [171]
Oleuropein aglycone Aβ-AD mice, SH-SY5Y Induction of AMPK/ULK1, inhibition of mTOR [172, 173]
Garcinol Acrylamide-brain of zebrafish larvae Regulation of cathepsin-B [174]
Carnosic acid Aβ 1–42- SH-SY5Y Increase LC3-II/I ratio, decrease SQSTM1(p62) [175]
β-asarone Aβ, PC12 cells Alleviation of autophagy occurred via Akt/mTOR signaling pathway [176]
Euxanthone Aβ1-42-PC12 Augmentation of LC3-II and Beclin1, alleviation of p62 [177]
Oleocanthal TgSwDI mice Activation of AMPK/ ULK1 pathway [178]
Ganoderma lucidum MPTP-induced PD in mice Elevation of NIX expression, decrease of LC3-II/LC3-I ratio, regulation of AMPK, mTOR, and ULK1 [179]
Parkinson’s disease Metformin In vitro and in vivo Activation of AMPK and inhibition of α-synuclein [180]
Sulforaphane Rotenone-mice, SH-SY5Y Decrease expression of LC3-II [181]
Morphine (low dose) 6-OHDA-SH-SY5Y and rats Augmentation of LC3-II, alleviation of p62 [182]
Manganese nanoparticle N27 dopaminergic neuronal cells Improvement of Beclin 1 and LC3 [183]
α-Arbutin Rotenone-induced PD, SH-SY5Y, drosophila Modulation of AMPK/p62 [184]
Polydatin Rotenone or Parkin deficiency-SH-SY5Y Promotion of ATG5 in a parkin-independent autophagy manner [185]
Glycyrrhizic acid 6-OHDA and corticosterone-induced PD in SH-SY5Y Attenuation of α-Syn and p-S1292-LRRK2 proteins expression, upregulation of LC3B II/I and Beclin-1 [186]
α-lipoic acid 6-OHDA-SH-SY5Y cells blockade AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway [187]
Icariin Rotenone-PC12 cells Regulation of LC3-II, Beclin1, p62 [188]
β-amyrin 6-OHDA- Caenorhabditis elegans Regulation of LGG-1 [189]
kaempferol Rotenone- SH-SY5Y Increase the expression of LC3-II [190]
Huntington’s disease Tolfenamic acid transgenic R6/1 mice Increase LC3-II/LC3-I ratio, decrease expression of p62 [191]
Liraglutide mHTT- SK-N-MC cells Upregulation of the phosphorylation of Thr172-AMPK and LC3-II [192]
Trehalose skin biopsies of HD patients Increase LC3 and LAMP2-A levels [193]
Resveratrol polyQ-Htt- SH-SY5Y restoring ATG4 level, allowing the LC3 lipidation, facilitating polyQ-Htt degradation [194]
Rutin Caenorhabditis elegans Autophagy by activation of protein degradation [195]
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Riluzole HeLa cells Increase the amount of HSF1 regarding the chaperone-mediated autophagy [196]
p-Coumaric Acid SOD1mut- N2a cells increased the level of LC3-II, decrease the protein level of p62 [197]
Cerebral ischemia Ulinastatin A variety of models Inhibition of neuronal autophagy [198]
Tanshinone IIA OGD/R- HT-22 cells Activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway [112]
Resveratrol cerebral ischemia rats Increase expression of LC3II [199]
Gabapentin middle cerebral artery occlusion-rats Regulation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway [200]
Melatonin I/R-rats, OGD/R-PC12 cells Reduction of LC3II/LC3I, an increase of p62 [201]
Lycium barbarum polysaccharide OGD/R- primary hippocampal neurons Activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway [202]
Tetrahydroxystilbene glucoside middle cerebral artery occlusion-mice Elevation of Beclin 1 and the LC3BII/I ratio [203]
Shengmai Cerebral I/R injury-mice modulation of the AMPK, mTOR, and JNK pathways, inhibition of Beclin1 and LC3 [204]
Esculetin transient bilateral typical carotid artery occlusion -treated mice Regulation of Bnip3, Beclin1, Pink1, parkin, and the LC-3 II/I ratio [205]
Luteolin MCAO rat model Regulation of SIRT3/AMPK/mTOR Signaling Pathway [106]
Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion Resveratrol CCH-rats Regulation of AKT/mTOR Signaling [206]
Spinal Cord Injury Omega-3 fatty acids Rodent models Increase of LC3-II expression, reduction of p38 MAPK expression [207]
Calcitriol laminectomy and spinal cord compression injury-rats Augmentation of LC3-II and Beclin1, alleviation of p62 [208]
Spinocerebellar ataxia Caffeic acid and resveratrol mutant ataxin-3-SK-N-SH-MJD78 cells, Drosophila Upregulation of p62 expression [209]
lactulose and melibiose SCA3 ATXN3/Q75-GFP cell model Regulation of autophagy [210]
Neurotoxicity Methylone and MDPV β-keto amphetamines-SH-SY5Y cells Increase expression of LC3-II [154]