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Table 1 Demographic, clinical characteristics and neuropsychological performances of patients with schizophrenia and comparison subjects (mean ± standard deviation)

From: Dual-modality impairment of implicit learning of letter-strings versus color-patterns in patients with schizophrenia

  PS CS  
Number 63 27  
Age (years) 30.3 ± 10.1 30.0 ± 9.7 F(1, 89) = 0.017, p = 0.898
Female : Male 36:27 16:11 X2 = 0.078, p = 0.683
Education (years) 12.7 ± 2.3 16.0 ± 3.0 F(1, 89) = 7.962, p = 0.006
PANSS dimensions
   Disorganization 7.3 ± 2.4   
   Negative 11.6 ± 4.5   
   Delusion/Hallucination 7.7 ± 3.4   
   Excitement 3.2 ± 1.8   
Neuropsychological performance
WMSR    
Verbal paired associates 22.6 ± 6.4 28.9 ± 3.0 F(3, 87) = 10.18, p < 0.001*
Visual reproduction Artificial grammar learning 59.2 ± 14.3 73.3 ± 8.4 F(3, 87) = 8.90, p < 0.001*
Lexical strings 57.7 ± 6.5 61.6 ± 5.7 F(3, 87) = 2.73, p = 0.048*
    F(5, 85) = 3.07, p = 0.014†
Color patterns 53.0 ± 6.3 59.3 ± 5.5 F(3, 87) = 8.51, p < 0.001*
    F(5, 85) = 5.48, p < 0.001†
  1. PS: patients with schizophrenia; CS: comparison subjects; WMSR: Wechsler Memory Scales Revised; X2:Chi-Square test; *: MANCOVA correcting with education and age; †: correcting with education, age, verbal pared associates and visual reproduction.