1

Yes

No

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

Attention to and processing of small nonsymbolic quantities

2

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

Attention to and processing of large nonsymbolic quantities

3

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

No

Link small nonsymbolic quantities to symbolic codes

4

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

Link large nonsymbolic quantities to symbolic codes

5

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes (4 sec)

No

No

No

Increase reliance on symbolic codes

6

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes (1 sec)

No

No

No

Further increase reliance on symbolic codes

7

No

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

Require complete reliance on symbolic codes

8

No

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

Require complete reliance on Arabic code

9

No

No

Yes

No

No

Yes

No

No

Attention towards exact quantity

10

No

No

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

No

Comprehension and fluency of small addition problems

11

No

No

Yes

No

No

Yes

Yes

No

Comprehension and fluency of larger addition problems

12

No

No

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

Comprehension and fluency of small subtraction problems

13

No

No

Yes

No

No

Yes

No

Yes

Comprehension and fluency of larger subtraction problems

14

No

No

Yes

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Distinguishing between addition and subtraction
