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Table 1 Conceptual complexity dimension levels

From: Principles underlying the design of "The Number Race", an adaptive computer game for remediation of dyscalculia

Level Format given before choice: Range restriction? (numbers 1–5 only) Dot fading present? (duration) Hazards present? Addition required? Subtraction required? Instructional goal
  Non-symbolic (dot clouds) Symbolic: Verbal (spoken numbers) Symbolic: Arabic (digits)       
1 Yes No No Yes No No No No Attention to and processing of small non-symbolic quantities
2 Yes No No No No No No No Attention to and processing of large non-symbolic quantities
3 Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No Link small non-symbolic quantities to symbolic codes
4 Yes Yes Yes No No No No No Link large non-symbolic quantities to symbolic codes
5 Yes Yes Yes No Yes (4 sec) No No No Increase reliance on symbolic codes
6 Yes Yes Yes No Yes (1 sec) No No No Further increase reliance on symbolic codes
7 No Yes Yes No No No No No Require complete reliance on symbolic codes
8 No No Yes No No No No No Require complete reliance on Arabic code
9 No No Yes No No Yes No No Attention towards exact quantity
10 No No Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Comprehension and fluency of small addition problems
11 No No Yes No No Yes Yes No Comprehension and fluency of larger addition problems
12 No No Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Comprehension and fluency of small subtraction problems
13 No No Yes No No Yes No Yes Comprehension and fluency of larger subtraction problems
14 No No Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Distinguishing between addition and subtraction
  1. Notes.
  2. "Range restriction" means that the range of quantities presented was from 1–5.
  3. "Dot fading" means that the collections of gold pieces were faded from view in the space of either 1 or 4 seconds, gradually helping to introduce a reliance on symbolic codes.
  4. "Hazards" means that there were new anemone hazards placed on the game board, which children had to try and avoid, encouraging a focus on exact quantity
  5. In addition trials, instead of presenting a simple quantity, an addition problem with a sum of up to 9 was presented on one side of the screen.
  6. In subtraction trials, the problems had operands of 9 or below, and thus a result of 8 or below.