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Table 2 Mean comparisons for the cognitive functions across the two age groups of adequately nourished and malnourished children

From: Cognitive development in children with chronic protein energy malnutrition

   WN (n = 20) MN (n = 20)  
Functions Test scores Mean (SD) Mean (SD) F ratio
   5–7 yrs 8–10 yrs 5–7 yrs 8–10 yrs  
Motor functions (primarily mediated by frontal cortex)
Motor speed-Right hand Finger tapping test: Avg no. of taps 26.5 (8.6) 27.9 (4.5) 24.7 (2.2) 28.3 (3.2) 1.63ns
Motor speed-Left hand Finger tapping test: Avg no. of taps 26.1 (9.1) 26.2 (5.08) 21.5 (2.8) 24.9 (1.51) .85ns
Attention (primarily mediated by frontal and parietal cortex)
Selective attention +Colour cancellation test 129" (20.2) 95.9" (18.3) 202.8" (17.7) 153.6" (19.6) 9.4**
Focused attention Colour trails test +Trail A --- 105" (25.8) --- 249" (49.2) 4.09**
  +Trail B --- 213.4" (18.1) --- 383.6" (27.5) 4.06**
Executive functions (primarily mediated by dorsolateral prefrontal cortex)
Verbal fluency FAS phonemic fluency test 4.3 (1.36) 5.7 (1.8) 1.36 (.15) 4.4 (2.3) 10.8**
Design fluency Design fluency test 5.4 (2.4) 10.3 (1.06) 3.2 (1.94) 4.5 (2.4) 7.75**
Working memory Visuospatial working memory span task 5.6 (2.02) 7.6 (2.05) 3.2 (1.2) 4.2 (2.4) 7.4**
Visuospatial functions (primarily mediated by right parietal cortex)
Visual perception Motor free visual perception test 26 (2.7) 30 (2.4) 17.4 (2.03) 20.4 (3.8) 7.8**
Visual construction Block design test 10 (2.6) 15.8 (5.5) 3.0 (1.3) 4.8 (2.2) 9.37**
Visual conceptual reasoning Picture completion test 9.4 (1.8) 10 (1.3) 6.0 (2.0) 7.0 (2.7) 7.87**
Comprehension, learning and memory (primarily mediated by bilateral medial and anterior lateral temporal cortex)
Verbal comprehension Token test 27.7 (2.0) 30.6 (1.5) 19.6 (4.4) 23 (5.4) 14.2**
Verbal learning Rey's auditory verbal learning test (RAVLT)-total learning score 32.4 (11.8) 42.3 (11.7) 26.9 (11.0) 30.7 (9.3) 4.2*
Verbal memory Delayed recall score, RAVLT 7.1 (2.2) 8.9 (1.7) 5.6 (2.01) 6.0 (1.8) 5.08*
Visual memory Delayed recall score, memory for designs test 6.6 (1.6) 9.7 (3.5) 2.2 (1.8) 2.4 (1.6) 8.04**
  1. * p < .05; **p < .01; ns p > .05; +: time in seconds; WN: adequately nourished, MN: malnourished