Proprioception, motor control and repeated segment-specific learning. Proprioceptive processing ability indexed as the normalized limb position matching RMSE (LPM) is plotted against the segmental difference in repeated segment-specific improvement over the course of practice (A). LPM values greater than 1.0 represent worse matching error than the average HC participant. Increasing values of repeated segment-specific improvement (SSI) represent greater improvement on the repeated segment as compared to the random segment. A strong relationship was detected between LPM and repeated segment learning (r = -0.74, *p = 0.015). B) Motor function of the hemiparetic arm as indexed by the Upper Extremity Fugl-Meyer assessment (UEFM) is plotted against the segmental difference in repeated segment-specific improvement over the course of practice. A moderate but non-significant (r = 0.46, p = 0.117) relationship between motor function and repeated segment-specific improvement (SSI) was detected. Increasing UEFM values represent better motor function. In both panels the horizontal dotted line represents general task improvement over practice; values above the line indicate repeated segment-specific learning. CVA group numbers corresponding to participants as identified in Table 1 are placed alongside each datapoint.