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Table 3 Features of resilience and susceptibility to stress-induced depressive state in animal models

From: Update in the methodology of the chronic stress paradigm: internal control matters

Physiological variable Susceptible Resilient
Sucrose intake/preference Decreased
[2125]
Not changed
[2125]
Behavioural despair Increased
[23, 25]
Not changed [21]
Not changed
[21, 23, 25]
Social avoidance Increased
[21, 22]
Not changed
[21, 22]
Novelty exploration Decreased
[21, 22]
Increased [25]
Not changed [21, 22]
Increased [25]
Contextual memory Decreased [24]
Not changed [23]
Not changed
[23, 24]
Working memory Decreased [24] Not changed [24]
Coat state and self-grooming Impaired
[22, 24]
Not changed
[22, 24]
Anxiety-like behavior Increased
[21, 22, 24]
Not changed [25]
Increased
[21, 22, 25]
Not changed [24]
Body weight Decreased
[21, 22, 25]
Not changed
[2124]
Decreased
[21, 22, 25]
Not changed
[2124]
Social hyperthermia Increased [21] Not changed [21]
Stress-induced polydipsia Increased
[21]
Not changed
[21]
Circadian amplitude Dereased [21] Not changed [21]
Conditioned place preference Increased [21] Not changed [21]
  1. Newly available models of depression which differentiate resilient and susceptible cohorts of animals enable a distinction of their physiological profiles. Original reports describing animal paradigms are quoted; in some cases dependently on the measure taken and the strain used the outcome varied within the same paradigm.