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Fig. 3 | Behavioral and Brain Functions

Fig. 3

From: Serum concentrations of kynurenines in adult patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a case–control study

Fig. 3

Odds ratio for ADHD with 95 % confidence intervals. Cotinine is divided in three categories corresponding to the serum level in non-smokers, smokers and heavy smokers. High levels of tryptophan, KA, XA, HAA and riboflavin were associated with lower odds ratio for ADHD. High levels of cotinine were associated with higher odds ratio for ADHD. Significance <0.001: ‘***’, <0.01: ‘**’, <0.05: ‘*’

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