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Table 1 Mean sample characteristics of the five groups studied.

From: Music listening while you learn: No influence of background music on verbal learning

  In-tune fast ITF In-tune slow ITS Out-of-tune fast OTF Out-of-tune slow OTS Noise
Age 23.8 ± 3.4 26.8 ± 4.9 27.3 ± 5.5 26.5 ± 25.3 ± 4.7
IQ 120 ± 9 118 ± 8 116 ± 16 119 ± 14 124 ± 5
Extraversion/introversion 2.6 ± 0.4 2.6 ± 0.4 2.4 ± 0.4 2.5 ± 0.5 2.6 ± 0.5
Years of education 15.6 ± 2.3 17.2 ± 3.7 16.1 ± 3.8 15.2 ± 2.0 14.6 ± 2.2
Gender n: f/m 8/7 8/7 8/7 8/7 7/8
N of subjects used to learn with music 4 2 1 2 5
Verbal memory (immediate recall) 45.5 ± 11.9 42.3 ± 11.5 41.7 ± 6.9 47.6 ± 10.5 45.4 ± 10.7
Verbal memory (delayed recognition) 17.3 ± 5.3 16.8 ± 4.3 16.7 ± 4.1 19.8 ± 3.9 17.2 ± 3.4
  1. Indicated are means and standard deviations.
  2. There was no statistically significant between-group difference for these measures (all p values at least >0.15).